It needs policy to control urban air pollution.
To cope with environmental pollution, Chen Jining, Minister of Environmental Protection, recently proposed that the ability of early warning and forecasting should be strengthened, and the early warning plan should be implemented to ensure the implementation of emergency measures in place. Beijing should strengthen the prevention and control of motor vehicle pollution. Chen Jining emphasized that this winter and spring are the key period of air pollution prevention and control. We should improve the ability of early warning and prediction, plan as a whole, refine early warning plans, constantly summarize and improve the level of heavy pollution weather response, and ensure that emergency measures are in place. Beijing should further strengthen the supervision in key areas, make efforts accurately, strengthen the prevention and control of motor vehicle pollution, speed up the elimination of yellow standard cars and old cars, and control mobile pollution sources such as heavy trucks.
Previously, heavy polluted weather occurred successively in Northeast, North China and East China. The fog and haze weather affected many provinces, many cities "blasting table", the degree of pollution, a wide range of impact. Expert analysis shows that the main components of PM2.5 in the process of heavy pollution in Beijing. Tianjin and Hebei are organic components and nitrates, and industrial and motor vehicle emissions are the main sources of the heavy pollution. According to the Annual Report on Environmental Management of China's Motor Vehicles (hereinafter referred to as the Annual Report) issued recently by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, in 2015, the preliminary calculation of pollutants discharged by motor vehicles in China was 45.322 million tons. Motor vehicle pollution has become an important source of air pollution in China and an important cause of haze and photochemical smog pollution.
Vehicle pollution directly affects people's health. Relevant responsible persons of the Ministry of Environmental Protection interpreted the annual report. According to the statistics of the annual report, the number of motor vehicles in China continues to grow. In 2015, the number of motor vehicles in China reached 279 million. The annual report shows that China has become the world's largest motor vehicle production and marketing country for seven consecutive years, and the urgency of motor vehicle pollution prevention and control has become increasingly prominent. According to the source analysis of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai, the contribution of mobile sources to the concentration of fine particulate matter ranges from 15% to 52.1%.
Vehicle traffic restriction and other measures can reduce pollutants
Statistics show that the total amount of motor vehicle emissions in China remains high. Since 2010, China has entered a period of "coordinated development of automobile market, automobile and society". During this period, the energy, environment and traffic congestion caused by automobiles will become more and more prominent. On the one hand, despite the rare downturn in the domestic car market last year, China's car market can still achieve 10% growth this year, and the environmental problems caused by the huge absolute value growth are still worrying. On the other hand, the quality of oil is also a big problem. According to the data of the International Clean Transport Commission, in the past 10 years, except for some major cities, China's oil standards have lagged behind the requirements of the corresponding vehicle emission standards. Among them, high sulfur content is the main culprit, which directly causes the increase of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in emissions, and the increase of particulate matter concentration.
At present, the number of motor vehicles in Beijing has reached 5.61 million, and the annual emission of pollutants is 700,000 tons. According to estimates, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons (HC) emitted by motor vehicles accounted for 86%, 56% and 32% of the total urban emissions of these pollutants, respectively. In the past two years, with the improvement of vehicle emission standards and the optimization of vehicle structure, the annual emission of pollutants has decreased by about 200,000 tons on the basis of an increase of about 300,000 vehicles. Data show that during major activities or heavy pollution periods, Beijing has adopted comprehensive measures such as motor vehicle restriction, which can reduce pollutant emissions by 20% to 40%.
Strengthen the Prevention and Control of Motor Vehicle Emission Pollution
Although motor vehicle exhaust has become the main source of air pollution in large and medium-sized cities, whether it is feasible to levy pollutant discharge fees and congestion fees in China? How effective is the "pollution control" effect? Consumers are still questioning. Especially how to levy vehicle emission fees and congestion fees is a focus of attention. Although in all the factors of PM2.5, except for the factors such as the improvement of emission standards, they can not be controlled independently, the others can be controlled independently. The criteria set by WHO are very high, even in some developed countries. it is difficult to achieve them immediately. However, while setting the criteria, WHO has also established three gradient transition target values for PM2.5 and PM10. The requirements for transition target values are relatively relaxed compared with the criteria. By adopting continuous and lasting pollution control measures, these transitional target values can be gradually realized. In order to prevent and control vehicle emission pollution, Beijing has implemented comprehensive emission reduction measures in terms of emission standards, oil quality and elimination of old motor vehicles, and strengthened emergency response during heavy pollution period. Now, air pollution control can be said to be the "top priority" of urban environmental protection. Under the background of automobile society, only by grasping the main causes of urban pollution and starting from improving the emission standards of motor vehicles. can we win the "battle to tackle air pollution" in an integrated way.