Several breakthroughs have been made in the study of national water environment security strategy
With the rapid development of China's economy, the amount of water resources development and utilization is increasing. Water intake and drainage are two major processes affecting the water body of natural rivers and lakes in the process of water resources development and utilization.On the one hand, water intake reduces the water environmental capacity of the water body, on the other hand, a large number of pollutants enter the water body and gradually exceed its carrying capacity. Especially in the future, with the rapid development of water resources allocation project construction, people will strengthen the capacity of water resources allocation, but also pose a greater threat to the water environment; secondly, industrial transfer provides a new opportunity for the coordinated protection and development of water environment, at the same time. it also poses a new challenge to water environment governance. making industry transfer from the downstream to the upstream. Moreover, the focus and input of water pollution prevention and control play a very direct role in the protection and restoration of the water environment. Therefore, it is of great strategic significance to carry out sustainable development of water resources, socio-economic, water environment and water environment management decision-making in view of the above key issues.
During the Twelfth Five-Year Plan period, "Water Pollution Control and Control" National Science and technology major project "Water Pollution Control Strategy and Policy" theme "Water Pollution Control Decision Support Platform and Policy Comprehensive Demonstration Research" project set up the "Research on Several Issues of National Water Environment Security Strategy" (2012ZX07601001), by China. The Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Sciences undertakes the allocation of 2.636 million yuan from the central government. The participating units include the Environmental Planning Institute of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and other units.
Based on the water environment security as the core and the evaluation index system of the water environment spatial zoning pattern, the national water environment security strategy system was constructed. The impact of water resources allocation, regional development (industry transfer) and water environment security policies on water environment security was comprehensively considered, and the water environment security based on water environment security was put forward. The policy system has been applied in the water pollution prevention and control planning of the 13th Five-Year Plan.
National Water Environment Security Strategic System and Spatial Zoning Method are the Foundation to Guarantee Water Environment Security
Combining with the background of environmental security under the new situation, the connotation of water environmental security is improved, and an index system framework including four aspects (water quantity, water quality, water ecology and water management) and nine dimensions is established, and a hierarchical constraint index, expected index and index threshold are designed. On this basis, the standardized evaluation procedure of nine steps is established. On this basis, from the point of view of watershed management, the basic principles, general procedures and related technical points of control unit division are put forward. According to the four basic procedures of control unit division, including water system identification and generalization, control section selection, sewage discharge direction determination, unit naming and coding, the relevant principles and methods are put forward from the technical point of view. Taking the control unit division technology as the core, a technical guide for water environment management spatial division is formed, which includes general principles, research progress of water environment management zoning, key technology of control unit division, planning zoning technology and so on.
Clear coupling relationship between water resources allocation and water environment security is the key to ensure water environment security
The research group pointed out that human development and utilization of water resources will also bring pollution load to our water body. On the one hand, we reduce the river runoff through water intake projects, on the other hand, due to the discharge of pollution load, the amount of available water resources will be reduced. Therefore, the relationship between water resources allocation and the evolution of water environment security is mutually restrictive and influential. The results of water resources allocation directly affect the water ecological indicators such as water demand satisfaction, water surface ratio and forest coverage of the basin, which reflect the situation of water environment security to a certain extent; water resources allocation affects the comprehensive water consumption per capita, the degree of water resources development and utilization, and the repetition of industrial water use. Utilization rate, water shortage rate and average water consumption per mu of farmland irrigation are important factors for evaluating water environmental safety. The supply, use, consumption and drainage process of social water cycle affect the reuse rate of wastewater, the discharge rate of industrial wastewater, the water quality of surface water functional areas, and the water quality of centralized water supply source areas. Achievement rate and other indicators. Conversely, these indicators reflect the water environment security situation of the basin to a certain extent, and are the bridge connecting the relationship between water resources allocation and the evolution of water environment security. The natural and social driving factors that affect the evolution of water cycle, such as climate factors, changes in underlying surface conditions and artificial water intake, affect the pattern of water resources allocation, but also to a certain extent, drive the evolution of water environment security. Healthy water environment provides a basis for the realization of the goal of rational allocation of water resources. Good water environment and up-to-standard water quality can meet the selection requirements of high-quality water sources in water resources allocation.
A water resources optimal allocation model for water environment security was constructed. This model aims at regulating the total quantity of water quantity and quality, and involves the joint analysis of the process of water quantity analysis and the process of water quality simulation. The model includes the prediction of water demand and pollution load, the simulation of water quantity process, the optimization of pollution control measures and the analysis of water quality standards in water functional areas. The data of each model module interact to form a whole, and through the scheme setting and multi-level feedback, the simulation analysis of the joint regulation of water quantity and quality is realized.
In the eastern part of China, especially in the coastal areas, the production costs of water, electricity, land and labor are increasing year by year, and the pressure of energy saving and emission reduction is increasing year by year.